I practiced Kung Fu and "Qi" or "Chi" from my Master when I was young. My grandfather was a Chinese Doctor and my father is a professor who researches "Qi" very well. I learned a lot from him. He always tells me an important idea which is "The ideal symbolizes the sunshine. The fame and profit symbolizes my shadow. If I struggle to face the sunshine, my shadow will always follow me. But if I turn around chasing my shadow, I will never be able to surpass it." I provided my free massage service in Chinese Hospital in Taipei during the weekend when I was in Taiwan since 2005.
Human being should be living until at the age of 100 years old without pain. But you need to practice "Qi". I practice Qi every morning about 6:00am. Qi (Resonance/Energy) is the foundation of life and health. The Chinese system used for over 5,000 years to “work”. Medical research has proven that Chi Gang can promote health, boost the enhance circulation, reduce stress, delay aging, cure disease and extend life. It is one of the most powerful self-healing traditions ever developed in human history. It triggers an array of physiological benefits, including increasing the delivery of oxygen to tissue, assisting the elimination of waste and the transportation of immune cells through the lymph system, as well as altering the chemistry of the brain and nervous system.
We have 12 meridians "Energy Channels" inside the human being body, you can not see them with your eyes, because it is circulated inside (above muscle, under the skin) the body with style of energy/resonance. Some Chinese people knew it 5000 years ago, and wrote it down to teach other people. Nobody knows who teaches them, it is not the medical technology from the earth, it is the aliens medical technology system. It is very powerful, easy, fast, safe and simple to have pain away instantly, it is all nature and no side effects.
Here, you do not need to take medicine, injection steroid, or sugery/operation. Human being heals human being with energy through meridians, not rely on equipments/steroid/chemical medicine heal human being. The pain problems are not caused from the muscle/nurve/bone, it is caused from the energy blocked inside the meridians, too much toxins in the fascia. This meridians system (Energy/resonance) will change the world nowadays medical system in the future.
Chien Mao, LMT.(Master Chien)
The most powerful thrapeutic massage in the world-5000 years meridian history in China.
Billions of people still using this powerful meridian system in the world, if you have pain here, no need to take medicine, no need injection steriod, no need surgery, everything is nature here, no side-effect.
Licensed Massage Therapist, Hawaii, U.S.A. (MAT#11676, MAE#2902)
Licensed Manipulative Therapist, Taiwan, R.O.C. (0970033942)
Professional Manipulative, Taiwan, R.O.C. (A1003027)
Chinese Traditional (97-22)
American Red Cross , Child and Infant (2015)
Chinese Kung Fu Massage
Sleep Well Massage
Shiatsu/Deep Tissue Massage
Beijing Royal Manipulative Massage
Chiropractor/Collateral/Channel Panic Skill
Customer service oriented (Mandarin, English)
Chinese martial arts, also referred to by the Mandarin Chinese term (simplified Chinese; traditional Chinese;) and popularly as kung fu (Chinese), are a number of fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. These fighting styles are often classified according to common traits, identified as "families", "sects" or "schools" of martial arts. Examples of such traits include physical exercises involving animal mimicry, or training methods inspired by Chinese philosophies, religions and legends. Styles which focus on Chi manipulations are labeled as internal, while others concentrate on improving muscle and cardiovascular fitness and are labeled external. Geographical association, as in northern and southern, is another popular method of categorization.
and are terms that have been borrowed into English to refer to Chinese martial arts. However, the Chinese terms kung fu and have distinct meanings; the Chinese literal equivalent of "Chinese martial art" would be Zhongguo .
Wshù literally means "martial art". It is formed from the two words(wu), meaning "martial" or "military" and (shù), which translates into "discipline", "skill" or "method."
The term has also become the name for the modern sport of , an exhibition and sport of barehanded and weapons forms adapted and judged to a set of aesthetic criteria for points developed since 1949 in the People's Republic of China. The term "kung fu"
In Chinese, kung fu can also be used in contexts completely unrelated to martial arts, and refers colloquially to any individual accomplishment or skill cultivated, through, long, and hard work. Wushu is a more precise term for general martial activities.
The genesis of Chinese martial arts has been attributed to the need for self-defense, hunting techniques and military training in ancient China. Hand-to-hand combat and weapons practice were important in training ancient Chinese soldiers.
While it is clear that various forms of martial arts have been practiced in China since antiquity, very little detail on specifics can be recovered for times predating the 16th century. By contrast, there is a variety of sources on the topic from the Qing period.
Detailed knowledge about the state and development of Chinese martial arts becomes available from the Nanjing decade (1928-1937), as the Central Institute established by the Kuomintang regime made an effort to compile an encyclopedic survey of martial arts schools. Since the 1950s, the People's Republic of China has organized Chinese martial arts as an exhibition and sport under the heading of Wushu.
 Legendary origins
According to legend, Chinese martial arts originated during the Xi Dynasty more than 4,000 years ago. It is said the Yellow Emperor (legendary date of ascension 2698 BCE) introduced the earliest fighting systems to China. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who, before becoming China’s leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine, astrology and the martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You who was credited as the creator of ciao Di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese Wrestling.
 Early history
The earliest references to Chinese martial arts are found in the Spring and Autumn Annals (5th century BCE),  where a hand to hand combat theory, including the integration of notions of "hard" and "soft" techniques, is mentioned. A combat wrestling system called juélì or j?olì is mentioned in the Classic of Rites (1st century BCE). This combat system included techniques such as strikes, throws, joint manipulation, and pressure point attacks. Ciao Di became a sport during the Quin Dynasty (221–207 BCE). The Han History Bibliographies record that, by the Former Han (206 BCE – 8 CE), there was a distinction between weaponless fighting, which it calls sh?ubó, for which "" manuals had already been written, and sportive wrestling, then known as juélì or j?olì. Wrestling is also documented in the Sh? Jì, Records of the Grand Historian, written by Siam Xian (ca. 100 BCE).
In the Tang Dynasty, descriptions of sword dances were immortalized in poems by Li Ba. In the Song and Yuan dynasties, xiangpu contests were sponsored by the imperial courts. The modern concepts of were fully developed by the Ming and Qing dynasties.
 Philosophical influences
The ideas associated with Chinese martial arts changed with the evolution of Chinese society and over time acquired some philosophical bases: Passages in the , a Maoist text, pertain to the psychology and practice of martial arts. , its eponymous author, is believed to have lived in the 4th century BCE. The Tao Te Chang, often credited to Lao Z, is another Maoist text that contains principles applicable to martial arts. According to one of the classic texts of Confucianism, Chou Li, Archery and charioteering were part of the "six arts" (simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: pinyin: liu yi, including rites, music, calligraphy and mathematics) of the Chou Dynasty (1122–256 BCE). The Art of War, written during the 6th century BCE by Sun Tzu, deals directly with military warfare but contains ideas that are used in the Chinese martial arts.
Maoist practitioners have been practicing Tao Yin, physical exercises similar to Qigong that was one of the progenitors to Tai Chi Chan, from at least as early as 500 BCE. In 39–92 CE, "Six Chapters of Hand Fighting", were included in the Han Shi (history of the Former Han Dynasty) written by Pan Ku. Also, the noted physician, Hua Tuo, composed the "Five Animals Play"—tiger, deer, monkey, bear, and bird, around 220 BCE. Maoist philosophy and their approach to health and exercise have influenced the Chinese martial arts to a certain extent. Direct reference to Maoist concepts can be found in such styles as the "Eight Immortals" which uses fighting techniques that are attributed to the characteristics of each immortal.
 Shaolin and temple-based martial arts
The Shaolin style of is regarded as among st the first institutionalized Chinese martial arts. The oldest evidence of Shaolin participation in combat is a stale from 728 CE that attests to two occasions: a defense of the Shaolin Monastery from bandits around 610 CE, and their subsequent role in the defeat of Wang Shichong at the Battle of Hula in 621 CE. From the 8th to the 15th centuries, there are no extant documents that provide evidence of Shaolin participation in combat.
Between the 16th and 17th centuries there are at least forty sources which provide evidence that not only did the monks of Shaolin practice martial arts, but martial practice had become such an integral element of Shaolin monastic life that the monks felt the need to justify it by creating new Buddhist lore, the earliest appearance of the frequently cited legend concerns Bodhidharma's supposed foundation of Shaolin Kung Fu dates to this period. The origin of this legend has been traced to the Ming period's Yijin Jung or "Muscle Change Classic", a text written in 1624 attributed to Bodhidharma.
Depiction of fighting monks demonstrating their skills to visiting dignitaries (early 19th-century mural in the Shaolin Monastery
References of martial arts practice in Shaolin appear in various literary genres of the late Ming: the epitaphs of Shaolin warrior monks, martial-arts manuals, military encyclopedias, historical writings, travelogues, fiction and poetry. However these sources do not point out to any specific style originated in Shaolin. These sources, in contrast to those from the Tang period, refer to Shaolin methods of armed combat. This include a skill for which Shaolin monks had become famous—the staff (gùn, Cantonese gwan). The Ming General Qi Jiguang included description of Shaolin Quan Fa (Pinyin romanization: Shào Lín Quán or Wade-Giles romanization Shaw Lin Ch'üan Fa, "fist principles"; Japanese pronunciation: Shoring Kemp or Keno) and staff techniques in his book, Ji Xian Xin Shi, which can be translated as "New Book Recording Effective Techniques". When this book spread to East Asia, it had a great influence on the development of martial arts in regions such as Okinawa  and Korea.
 Modern history
 Republican period
Most fighting styles that are being practiced as traditional Chinese martial arts today reached their popularity within the 20th century. Some of these include Bagua, Drunken Boxing, Eagle Claw, Five Animals, Hsing I, Hung Gar, Monkey, Bak Mei Pai, Praying Mantis, Fijian White Crane, Jew Ga, Wing Chan and Tai Chi Chan. The increase in the popularity of those styles is a result of the dramatic changes occurring within the Chinese society.
In 1900-01, the Righteous and Harmonious Fists rose against foreign occupiers and Christian missionaries in China. This uprising is known in the West as the Boxer Rebellion due to the martial arts and calisthenics practiced by the rebels. Though it originally opposed the Manchu Qing Dynasty, the Empress Dowager Clxi gained control of the rebellion and tried to use it against the foreign powers. The failure of the rebellion led ten years later to the fall of the Qing Dynasty and the creation of the Chinese Republic.
The present view of Chinese martial arts are strongly influenced by the events of the Republican Period (1912–1949). In the transition period between the fall of the Qing Dynasty as well as the turmoils of the Japanese invasion and the Chinese, civil, war, Chinese martial arts became more accessible to the public as many martial artists were encouraged too openly teach their art. At that time, some considered martial arts as a means to promote national pride and build a strong nation. As a result, many training manuals were published, a training academy was created, two national examinations were organized as well as demonstration teams traveled overseas,  and numerous martial arts associations were formed throughout China and in various overseas Chinese communities. The Central Academy (Zhongyang Guoshuguan, established by the National Government in 1928 and the Jung Wu Athletic Association founded by Ho Yuanjia in 1910 are examples of organizations that promoted a systematic approach for training in Chinese martial arts. A series of provincial and national competitions were organized by the Republican government starting in 1932 to promote Chinese martial arts. In 1936, at the 11th Olympic Games in Berlin, a group of Chinese martial artists demonstrated their art to an international audience for the first time.
The term Kuoshu (or , meaning "national art"), rather than the colloquial term kung fu was introduced by the Kuomintang in an effort to more closely associate Chinese martial arts with national pride rather than individual accomplishment.
 People's Republic
Chinese martial arts experienced rapid international dissemination with the end of the Chinese Civil War and the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949. Many well known martial artists chose to escape from the PRC's rule and migrate to Taiwan, Hong Kong,  and other parts of the world. Those masters started to teach within the overseas Chinese communities but eventually they expanded their teachings to include people from other ethnic groups.
Within China, the practice of traditional martial arts was discouraged during the turbulent years of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1969–1976). Like many other aspects of traditional Chinese life, martial arts were subjected to a radical transformation by the People's Republic of China in order to align them with Maoist revolutionary doctrine. The PRC promoted the committee-regulated sport of Wushu as a replacement to independent schools of martial arts. This new competition sport was disassociated from what was seen as the potentially subversive self-defense aspects and family lineages of Chinese martial arts.
In 1958, the government established the Wushu Association as an umbrella organization to regulate martial arts training. The Chinese State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports took the lead in creating standardized forms for most of the major arts. During this period, a national Wushu system that included standard forms, teaching curriculum, and instructor grading was established. Wushu was introduced at both the high school and university level. The suppression of traditional teaching was relaxed during the Era of Reconstruction (1976–1989), as Communist ideology became more accommodating to alternative viewpoints. In 1979, the State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports created a special task force to reevaluate the teaching and practice of Wushu. In 1986, the Chinese National Research Institute of Wushu was established as the central authority for the research and administration of Wushu activities in the People's Republic of China.
Changing government policies and attitudes towards sports in general lead to the closing of the State Sports Commission (the central sports authority) in 1998. This closure is viewed as an attempt too partially depoliticize organized sports and move Chinese sport policies towards a more market-driven approach. As a result of these changing sociological factors within China, both traditional styles and modern Wushu approaches are being promoted by the Chinese government.
Chinese martial arts are an integral element of 20th-century Chinese popular culture. Wuxia or "martial arts fiction" is a popular genre which emerged in the early 20th century and peaked in popularity during the 1960s to 1980s. Wuxia films were produced from the 1920s. The Kuomintang suppressed wuxia, accusing it of promoting superstition and violent anarchy. Because of this, wuxia came to flourish in British Hong Kong, and the genre of kung fu movie in Hong Kong action cinema became wildly popular, coming to international attention from the 1970s. The genre declined somewhat during the 1980s, and in the late 1980s the Hong Kong film industry underwent a drastic decline, even before Hong Kong was handed to the People's Republic in 1997. In the wake of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000), there has been somewhat of a revival of Chinese-produced wuxia films aimed at an international audience, including Hero (2002), House of Flying Daggers (2004) and Reign of Assassins (2010).
China has a long history of martial traditions that includes hundreds of different styles. Over the past two thousand years many distinctive styles have been developed, each with its own set of techniques and ideas. There are also common themes to the different styles, which are often classified by "families", "sects" or "schools". There are styles that mimic movements from animals and others that gather inspiration from various Chinese philosophies, myths and legends. Some styles put most of their focus into the harnessing of qi, while others concentrate on competition.
Chinese martial arts can be split into various categories to differentiate them: For example, external and internal. Chinese martial arts can also be categorized by location, as in northern and southern as well, referring to what part of China the styles originated from, separated by the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang); Chinese martial arts may even be classified according to their province or city. The main perceived difference between northern and southern styles is that the northern styles tend to emphasize fast and powerful kicks, high jumps and generally fluid and rapid movement, while the southern styles focus more on strong arm and hand techniques, and stable, immovable stances and fast footwork. Examples of the northern styles include changquan and xingyiquan. Examples of the southern styles include Bak Mei, Wuzuquan, Chou Li Fut and Wing Chan. Chinese martial arts can also be divided according to religion, imitative-styles, and family styles such as Hung Gar. There are distinctive differences in the training between different groups of the Chinese martial arts regardless of the type of classification. However, few experienced martial artists make a clear distinction between internal and external styles, or subscribe to the idea of northern systems being predominantly kick-based and southern systems relying more heavily on upper-body techniques. Most styles contain both hard and soft elements, regardless of their internal nomenclature. Analyzing the difference in accordance with yin and yang principles, philosophers would assert that the absence of either one would render the practitioner's skills unbalanced or deficient, as yin and yang alone are each only half of a whole. If such differences did once exist, they have since been blurred.
Chinese martial arts training consists of the following components: basics, forms, applications and weapons; different styles place varying emphasis on each component. In addition, philosophy, ethics and even medical practice are highly regarded by most Chinese martial arts. A complete training system should also provide insight into Chinese attitudes and culture.
The Basics are a vital part of any martial training, as a student cannot progress to the more advanced stages without them; Basics are usually made up of rudimentary techniques, conditioning exercises, including stances. Basic training may involve simple movements that are performed repeatedly; other examples of basic training are stretching, meditation, striking, throwing, or jumping. Without strong and flexible muscles, management of Qi or breath, and proper body mechanics, it is impossible for a student to progress in the Chinese martial arts. A common saying concerning basic training in Chinese martial arts is as follows:
Which can be translated as:
Train both Internal and External.
External training includes the hands, the eyes, the body and stances. Internal training includes the heart, the spirit, the mind, breathing and strength.
Stances (steps) are structural postures employed in Chinese martial arts training. They represent the foundation and the form of a fighter's base. Each style has different names and variations for each stance. Stances may be differentiated by foot position, weight distribution, body alignment, etc. Stance training can be practiced statically, the goal of which is to maintain the structure of the stance through a set time period, or dynamically, in which case a series of movement is performed repeatedly. The horse-riding stance and the bow stance are examples of stances found in many styles of Chinese martial arts.
In many Chinese martial arts, meditation is considered to be an important component of basic training. Meditation can be used to develop focus, mental clarity and can act as a basis for qigong training.
Use of Chi (Qi)
The concept of qi or ch'i am encountered in a number of Chinese martial arts. Qi is variously defined as an inner energy or "life force" that is said to animate living beings; as a term for proper skeletal alignment and efficient use of musculature (sometimes also known as fa jin or jin); or as a shorthand for concepts that the martial arts student might not yet be ready to understand in full. These meanings are not necessarily mutually exclusive.[note 1] The existence of qi as a measurable form of energy as discussed in traditional Chinese medicine has no basis in the scientific understanding of physics, medicine, biology or human physiology.
There are many ideas regarding the control of one's qi energy to such an extent that it can be used for healing oneself or others: the goal of medical qigong. Some styles believe in focusing qi into a single point when attacking and aim at specific areas of the human body. Such techniques are known as dim mak and have principles that are similar to acupressure.
Most Chinese styles also make use of training in the broad arsenal of Chinese weapons for conditioning the body as well as coordination and strategy drills. Weapons training (qìxiè) are generally carried out after the student is proficient in the basics, forms and applications training. The basic theory for weapons training is to consider the weapon as an extension of the body. It has the same requirements for footwork and body coordination as the basics. The process of weapon training proceeds with forms, forms with partners and then applications. Most systems have training methods for each of the Eighteen Arms of Wushu in addition to specialized instruments specific to the system.
Application refers to the practical use of combative techniques. Chinese martial arts techniques are ideally based on efficiency and effectiveness. Application includes non-compliant drills, such as Pushing Hands in many internal martial arts, and sparring, which occurs within a variety of contact levels and rule sets.
When and how applications are taught varies from style to style. Today, many styles begin to teach new students by focusing on exercises in which each student knows a prescribed range of combat and technique to be drilled; these drills are often semi-compliant, meaning one student does not offer active resistance to a technique in order to allow its demonstrative, clean execution. In more resisting drills, fewer rules are applied and students practice how to react and respond. 'Sparring' refers to the most important aspect of application training, which simulates a combat situation while including rules and regulations in order to reduce the chance of serious injury to the students.
Competitive sparring disciplines include Chinese kickboxing and Chinese folk wrestling, which were traditionally contested on a raised platform arena. Lèitái represents public challenge matches that first appeared in the Song Dynasty. The objective for those contests was to knock the opponent from a raised platform by any means necessary. San Shou represents the modern development of Lei Tai contests, but with rules in place to reduce the chance of serious injury. Many Chinese martial art schools teach or work within the rule sets of Sanshou, working to incorporate the movements, characteristics, and theory of their style. Chinese martial artists also compete in non-Chinese or mixed Combat sport, including boxing, kickboxing and Mixed martial arts.
Forms or (Chinese:; pinyin: tào lù) in Chinese are series of predetermined movements combined so they can be practiced as one linear set of movements. Forms were originally intended to preserve the lineage of a particular style branch, and were often taught to advanced students who were selected to preserve the art's lineage. Forms were designed to contain both literal, representative and exercise-oriented forms of applicable techniques which would be extracted, test, and trained by students through sparring sessions.
Today, many consider forms to be one of the most important practices in Chinese martial arts. Traditionally, they played a smaller role in training combat application, and were eclipsed by sparring, drilling and conditioning. Forms gradually build up a practitioner's flexibility, internal, and external strength, speed and stamina, and teach balance and coordination. Many styles contain forms using a wide range of weapons of various length and type, utilizing one or two hands. There are also styles which focus on a certain type of weapon. Forms are meant to be both practical, usable, and applicable as well as promoting flow, meditation, flexibility, balance and coordination. Teachers are often heard to say "train your form as if you were sparring and spar as if it were a form."
There are two general types of forms in Chinese martial arts. Most common are "solo forms" which are performed by a single student. There are also "sparring" forms, which are choreographed fighting sets performed by two or more people. Sparring forms were designed both to acquaint beginning fighters with basic measures and concepts of combat, and to serve as performance pieces for the school. Sparring forms which utilize weapons are especially useful for teaching students the extension, range and technique required to manage a weapon.
Forms in Traditional Chinese Martial Arts
The term “taolu” is a shorten version of “Tao Lu Yuan Dong”; an expression that was introduced only recently with the popularity modern . This expression refers to “exercise sets” and is used in the context of athletics or sport.
In contrast, in traditional Chinese martial arts alternative terminologies for the training of 'sets or forms are:
- lain qua Tao - practicing sequence of fist;
- lain qua ciao - practicing fists and feet;
- lain bing qi - practicing weapons;
- dui da and dui lain - fighting sets.
Traditional "sparring" sets, called dui da, or, dui lain, were an important part of Chinese martial arts for centuries. Dui lain, literally means, to train by a pair of combatants opposing each other (the character, means to practice; to train; to perfect one's skill; to drill). As well, often one of these terms are also included in the name of fighting sets: shuang yan, 'paired practice'; zheng sheng, 'to struggle with strength for victory ' match – the character suggests to strike an enemy; and ?, Po, 'to break'.
Generally there are 21, 18, 12, 9 or 5 drills or 'exchanges/groupings' of attacks and counter attacks, in each dui lain, set. These drills were considered only generic patterns and never meant to be considered inflexible 'tricks'. Students practiced smaller parts/exchanges, individually with opponents switching sides in a continuous flow. Basically, dui lain were not only a sophisticated and effective methods of passing on the fighting knowledge of the older generation, they were important and effective training methods. The relationship between single sets and contact sets is quite complicated in that in many cases there are skills which simply can not be developed with single sets, and, conversely, with dui lain. Unfortunately, it appears that most traditional combat oriented dui lain and their training methodology have disappeared, especially those concerning weapons. There are a number of reasons for this. In modern Chinese martial arts most of the dui lain are recent inventions designed for light props resembling weapons, with safety and drama in mind. The role of this kind of training has degenerated to the point of being useless in a practical sense, and, at best, is just performance.
By the early Song period, sets were not so much "individual isolated technique strung together" but rather were composed of techniques and counter technique groupings. It is quite clear that "sets" and "fighting (2 person) sets" have been instrumental in TCM for many hundreds of years - even before the Song Dynasty. There are images of two person weapon training in Chinese stone painting going back at least to the Eastern Han Dynasty.
According to what has been passed on by the older generations, the approximate ratio of contact sets to single sets was approximately 1:3. In other words, about 30% of the sets practiced at Shaolin where contact sets, and two person drill training. This is, in part, evidenced by the Qing Dynasty mural at Shaolin.
Ancient literature from the Tang and Northern Song Dynasty suggests that some sets, including those which required two or more participants, became very elaborate, "flowery", and mainly concerned with aesthetics. During this time, some martial arts systems devolved to the point that they became popular forms of martial art storytelling entertainment shows. This created an entire new category of martial arts known as Hua Fa Wuyi, or "fancy patterns for developing military skill". During the Northern Song period it was noted by historians that this phenomenon had a negative influence on training in the military.
For most of its history, Shaolin martial arts was largely weapon-focused: staves were used to defend the monastery, not bare hands. Even the more recent military exploits of Shaolin during the Ming and Qing Dynasties involved weapons. According to some traditions, monks first studied basics for one year and were then taught staff fighting so that they could protect the monastery. Although wrestling has been as sport in China for centuries, weapons have been the most important part of Chinese since ancient times. If one wants to talk about recent or 'modern' developments in Chinese martial arts (including Shaolin for that matter), it is the overemphasis on bare hand fighting. During the Northern Song Dynasty (976- 997 A.D) when platform fighting known as Da Laitai (Title Fights Challenge on Platform) first appeared, these fights were with only swords and staves. Although later, when bare hand fights appeared as well, it was the weapons events that became the most famous. These open-ring competitions had regulations and were organized by government organizations; some were also organized by the public. The government competitions resulted in appointments to military posts for winners and were held in the capital as well as in the prefectures.
Even though forms in Chinese martial arts are intended to depict realistic martial techniques, the movements are not always identical to how techniques would be applied in combat. Many forms have been elaborated upon, on the one hand to provide better combat preparedness, and on the other hand to look more aesthetically pleasing. One manifestation of this tendency toward elaboration which goes beyond combat application is the use of lower stances and higher, stretching kicks. These two maneuvers are unrealistic in combat and are utilized in forms for exercise purposes. Many modern schools have replaced practical defense or offense movements with acrobatic feats that are more spectacular to watch, thereby gaining favor during exhibitions and competitions.[note 2] This has led to criticisms by traditionalists of the endorsement of the more acrobatic, show-oriented Wushu competition. Even though appearance has always been important in many traditional forms as well, all patterns exist for their combat functionality. Historically forms were often performed for entertainment purposes long before the advent of modern Wushu as practitioners have looked for supplementary income by performing on the streets or in theaters. As documented in ancient literature during the Tang Dynasty (618–907) and the Song Dynasty (960–1279) suggest some sets, (including two + person sets: dui da, systems de-evolved to the point that they became popular forms of martial art storytelling entertainment shows. This created an entire category of martial arts known as Hua Fa Wuyi - fancy patterns for developing military skill. During the Northern Song period, it was noted by historians this type of training had a negative influence on training in the military.
Many traditional Chinese martial artists, as well as practitioners of modern sport combat, have become critical of the perception that form work is more relevant to the art than sparring and drill application, while most continue to see traditional forms practice within the traditional context—as vital to both proper combat execution, the Shaolin aesthetic as art form, as well as upholding the meditative function of the physical art form.
Another reason why techniques often appear different in forms when contrasted with sparring application is thought by some to come from the concealment of the actual functions of the techniques from outsiders.
Modern forms are used in the sport of
, as seen in this staff routine
“‘Wu’” is translated as ‘martial’ in English, however in terms of etymology, this word has a slightly different meaning. In Chinese, “wu” is made up of two parts, the first meaning “stop”(Chi) and the second meaning “invaders lance” (je). This implies that “wu’,” is a defensive use of combat. The term “wushu” meaning martial arts goes back only to the beginning of the 20th century. Prior to that it meant military affairs. The earliest term found in the Han History (206BC-23AD) was "bing jiqiao" military fighting techniques. During the Song period (c960) the name changed to "wuyi"literally "martial arts". In 1928 the name was changed to "guoshu" or "national arts" when the National Martial Arts Academy was established in Nanjing. The term reverted to "" under the People's Republic of China during the early 1950s.
As forms have grown in complexity and quantity over the years, and many forms alone could be practiced for a lifetime, modern styles of Chinese martial arts have developed that concentrate solely on forms, and do not practice application at all. These styles are primarily aimed at exhibition and competition, and often include more acrobatic jumps and movements added for enhanced visual effect compared to the traditional styles. Those who generally prefer to practice traditional styles, focused less on exhibition, are often referred too as traditionalists. Some traditionalists consider the competition forms of today's Chinese martial arts as to commercialized and losing much of its original values.
Traditional Chinese schools of martial arts, such as the famed Shaolin monks, often dealt with the study of martial arts not just as a means of self-defense or mental training, but as a system of ethics. Wude can be translated as "martial morality" and is constructed from the words "wu" which means martial, and "de", which means morality. Wude deals with two aspects; "morality of deed" and "morality of mind". Morality of deed concerns social relations; morality of mind is meant to cultivate the inner harmony between the emotional mind (Xin, ) and the wisdom mind (Hui, ). The ultimate goal is reaching "no extremity" (Wuji, ) (closely related to the Taoist concept of wu wei), where both wisdom and emotions are in harmony with each other.
- See also: Category: Chinese martial artists and Category: Wushu practitioners
Examples of well-known practitioners throughout history:
- Yue Fei (1103–1142 CE) was a famous Chinese general and patriot of the Song Dynasty. Styles such as Eagle Claw and Xingyi attribute their creation to Yue. However, there is no historical evidence to support the claim he created these styles.
- Ng Mui (late 17th century) was the legendary female founder of many Southerns martial arts such as Wing Chan Ken, Dragon style and Fijian White Crane. She is often considered one of the legendary Five Elders who survived the destruction of the Shaolin Temple during the Qing Dynasty.
- Yang Lucian (1799–1872) was an important teacher of the internal martial art known as tai chi churn in Beijing during the second half of the 19th century. Yang is known as the founder of Yang style tai chi churn, as well as transmitting the art to the Wu/Hao, Wu and Sun tai chi families.
- Ten Tigers of Canton (late 19th century) was a group of ten of the top Chinese martial arts masters in Guangdong (Canton) towards the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912). Wong Kei-Ying, Wong Fei Hung's father, was a member of this group.
- Wong Fei Hung (1847–1924) was considered a Chinese folk hero during the Republican period. More than one hundred Hong Kong movies were made about his life. Sammo Hung, Jackie Chan, and Jet Li has all portrayed his character in blockbuster pictures.
- Ho Yuanjia (1867–1910) was the founder of Chin Woo Athletic Association who was known for his highly publicized matches with foreigners. His biography was recently portrayed in the movie Fearless (2006).
- Yip Man (1893–1972) was a master of the Wing Chan and the first to teach this style openly. Yip Man was the teacher of Bruce Lee. Most major branches of Wing Chan that exist today were developed and promoted by students of Yip Man.
- Bruce Lee (1940–1973) was a Chinese American martial artist and actor who was considered an important icon in the 20th century. He practiced Wing Chan and made it famous. Using Wing Chan as his base and learning from the influences of other martial arts experience exposed him to, he later developed his own martial arts philosophy which evolved into what is now known as Jeep Kune Do.
- Jackie Chan (b. 1954) is a Chinese martial artist and actor widely known for injecting physical comedy into his martial arts performances, and for performing complex stunts in many of his films.
- Jet Li (b. 1963) is the five-time sport champion of China, later demonstrating his skills in cinema.
References to the concepts and use of Chinese martial arts can be found in popular culture. Historically, the influence of Chinese martial arts can be found in books and in the performance arts specific to Asia. Recently, those influences have extended to the movies and television that targets a much wider audience. As a result, Chinese martial arts have spread beyond its ethnic roots and have a global appeal.
Martial arts play a prominent role in the literature genre known as wuxia. This type of fiction is based on Chinese concepts of chivalry, a separate martial arts society (Wulin) and a central theme involving martial arts. Wuxia stories can be traced as far back as 2nd and 3rd century BCE, becoming popular by the Tang Dynasty and evolving into novel form by the Ming Dynasty. This genre is still extremely popular in much of Asia and provides a major influence for the public perception of the martial arts.
Martial arts influences can also be found in Chinese opera of which Beijing opera is one of the best-known examples. This popular form of drama dates back to the Tang Dynasty and continues to be an example of Chinese culture. Some martial arts movements can be found in Chinese opera and some martial artists can be found as performers in Chinese operas.
In modern times, Chinese martial arts have spawned the genre of cinema known as the martial arts film. The films of Bruce Lee were instrumental in the initial burst of Chinese martial arts' popularity in the West in the 1970s.
Martial artists and actors such as Jet Li and Jackie Chan have continued the aPpeal of movies of this genre. Martial arts films from China are often referred too as "kungfu movies" or "wire-fu" if extensive wire work is performed for special effects, and are still best known as Part of the tradition of kungfu theater. (see also: wuxia, Hong Kong action cinema).
In the west, Kung fu has become a regular action staple, and makes appearances in many films that would not generally be considered "Martial Arts" films. These films include but are not limited to The Matrix Trilogy, Kill Bill, and The Transporter.
Martial arts themes can also be found on television networks. A U.S. network TV western series of the early 1970s called Kung Fu also served to popularize the Chinese martial arts on television. With 60 episodes over a three-year sPan, it was one of the first North American TV shows that tried to convey the philosophy and practice in Chinese martial arts. The use of Chinese martial arts techniques can now be found in most , although the philosophy of Chinese martial arts is seldom portrayed in depth.
- ^ a b Jamieson, John; Tao, Lin; Shuhua, Zhao (2002). Kung Fu (I): An Elementary Chinese Text. The Chinese University Press. ISBN 978-962-201-867-9.
- ^ Price, Monroe (2008). Owning the OlymPics: Narratives of the New China. Chinese University of Michigan Press. pp. 309. ISBN 9780472070329.
- ^ a b c d Fu, Zhongwen (1996, 2006). Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan.. Louis Swain. Berkeley, California: Blue Snake Books. ISBN 1-58394-152-5 (trade paper).
- ^ Van de Van, Hans J. (October 2000). Warfare in Chinese History. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 328. ISBN 90-04-11774-1.
- ^ Gaff, David Andrew; Robin Higham (March 2002). A Military History of China. West view Press. pp. 15-16. ISBN 0-8133-3990-1. Peers, C.J. (2006-06-27). Soldiers of the Dragon: Chinese Armies 1500 BC–1840 AD. Osprey Publishing. p. 130. ISBN 1-84603-098-6.
- ^ Green, Thomas A. (2001). Martial arts of the world: an encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 26–39. ISBN 9781576071502.
- ^ Bonnefoy, Yves (1993-05-15). Asian Mythologies. Trans. Wendy Doniger. University Of Chicago Press. pp. 246. ISBN 0-226-06456-5.
- ^ Zhongyi, Tong; Cartmell, Tim (2005). The Method of Chinese Wrestling. North Atlantic Books. pp. 5. ISBN 978-1-55643-609-3.
- ^ Journal of Asian Martial Arts Volume 16. Via Media Pub. Co., original from Indiana University. 2007. p. 27. ISSN 1057-8358.
- ^ trans. and ed. Zhang Jue (1994), pp. 367–370, cited after Henning (1999) p. 321 and note 8.
- ^ Classic of Rites. Chapter 6, Yuèlìng. Line 108.
- ^ Henning, Stanley E. (Fall 1999). "Academia Encounters the Chinese Martial arts". China Review International 6 (2): 319–332. Doi:10.1353/chi.1999.0020. ISSN 1069-5834. Http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/china_review_international/v006/6.2henning.pdf.
- ^ Sports &amP; Games in Ancient China (China Spotlight Series). China Books & Periodicals Inc. December 1986. ISBN 0-8351-1534-8.
- ^ Lao, Cen (April 1997). "The Evolution of T'ai Chi Ch'uan". The International Magazine of T'ai Chi Ch'uan (Wayfarer Publications) 21 (2). ISSN 0730-1049.
- ^ Dingbo, Wu; Patrick D. Murphy (1994). Handbook of Chinese Popular Culture. Greenwood Press. p. 156. ISBN 0-313-27808-3.
- ^ Padmore, Penelope (September 2004). "Druken Fist". Black Belt (Active Interest Media): 77. http://books.google.com/?id=wtsDAAAAMBAJ&amP;pg=PA80&dq=eight+immortals+kung+fu&cd=3#v=onepage&q=eight%20immortals%20kung%20fu&f=false.
- ^ Wong, Kiew Kit (2002). The Complete Book Of Shaolin. Cosmos Internet Sdn Bhd. ISBN 983-40879-1-8.
- ^ Shahar, Meir (2000). "Epigraphy, Buddhist Historiography, and Fighting Monks: The Case of The Shaolin Monastery". Asia Major Third Series 13 (2): 15–36.
- ^ Shahar, Meir (December 2001). "Ming-Period Evidence of Shaolin Martial Practice". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (Harvard-Yenching Institute) 61 (2): 359–413. Doi:10.2307/3558572. JSTOR 3558572. ISSN 0073-0548.
- ^ Kansuke, Yamamoto (1994). Heiho Okugisho: The Secret of High Strategy. W.M. Hawley. ISBN 0-910704-92-9.
- ^ Kim, Sang H. (January 2001). : The Comprehensive Illustrated Manual of Martial Arts of Ancient Korea. Turtle Press. ISBN 978-1880336533.
- ^ a b c Kennedy, Brian; Elizabeth Guo (2005-11-11). Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-557-6.
- ^ Morris, Andrew (2000). "National Skills: Martial arts and the Nanjing State, 1928–1937". 2000 AAS Annual Meeting, March 9–12, 2000. San Diego, CA, USA. http://www.aasianst.org/absts/2000abst/China/C-6.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-04.
- ^ Brownell, Susan (1995-08-01). Training the Body for China: sports in the moral order of the people's republic. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-07646-6.
- ^ Mangan, J. A.; Fan Hong (2002-09-29). Sport in Asian Society: Past and Present. UK: Rutledge. pp. 244. ISBN 0-7146-5342-X.
- ^ Morris, Andrew (2004-09-13). Marrow of the Nation: A History of Sport and Physical Culture in Republican China. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24084-7.
- ^ Amos, Daniel Miles (1983) "Marginality and the Hero's Art: Martial artists in Hong Kong and Guangzhou (Canton)", University of California at Los Angeles (US), July 1984, UM 8408765
- ^ Kraus, Richard Curt (2004-04-28). The Party and the Arty in China: The New Politics of Culture (State and Society in East Asia). Rowman & Little field Publishers, Inc. pp. 29. ISBN 0-742-52720-4.
- ^ Bin, Wu; Li Xingdong and Yu Gongbao (1995-01-01). Essentials of Chinese Wushu. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 7-119-01477-3.
- ^ Riordan, Jim (1999-09-14). Sport and Physical Education in China. Spon Press (UK). ISBN 0-419-24750-5. p.15
- ^ Minutes of the 8th Congress, International Wushu Federation, December 9, 2005 (accessed 01/2007)
- ^ Zhang, Wei; Tan (1994). "Wushu". Handbook of Chinese Popular Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 155–168. 9780313278082.
- ^ Yan, Xing (1995-06-01). Liu Yamin, Xing Yan. Ed. Treasure of the Chinese Nation—The Best of Chinese Wushu Shaolin Kungfu (Chinese ed.). China Books & Periodicals. ISBN 7-800-24196-3.
- ^ Tianji, Li; Du Xilian (1995-01-01). A Guide to Chinese Martial Arts. Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 7-119-01393-9.
- ^ Liang, Shou-Yu; Wen-Ching Wu (2006-04-01). Kung Fu Elements. The Way of the Dragon Publishing. ISBN 1-889-65932-0.
- ^ Schmieg, Anthony L. (December 2004). Watching Your Back: Chinese Martial Arts and Traditional Medicine. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-824-82823-2.
- ^ a b Hsu, Adam (1998-04-15). The Sword Polisher's Record: The Way of (1st ed.). Tattle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3138-6.
- ^ Wong, Kiew Kit (2002-11-15). The Art of Shaolin Kung Fu: The Secrets of Kung Fu for Self-Defense, Health, and Enlightenment. Tattle Publishing. ISBN 0-804-83439-3.
- ^ Kit, Wong Kiew (2002-05-01). The Complete Book of Shaolin: Comprehensive Program for Physical, Emotional, Mental and Spiritual Development. Cosmos Publishing. ISBN 9-834-08791-8.
- ^ Zhongguo da bai ke qua shu zong bian j wei yuan hui "Zong suo yin" bian j wei yuan hui, Zhongguo da bai ke qua shu chu ban she bian j bu bian (1994) (in Mandarin). Zhongguo da bai ke qua shu (?????????????) [Baike zhishi (????? , Chinese Encyclopedia)]. Shanghai:Xin hua shu dian jing xiao. p. 30. ISBN 7-500-00441-9.
- ^ Mark, Bow-Sim (1981). Wushu basic training (The Chinese Wushu Research Institute book series). Chinese Wushu Research Institute. ASIN B00070I1FE.
- ^ Wu, Raymond (2007-03-20). Fundamentals of High Performance Wushu: Taolu Jumps and Spins. Lulu.com. ISBN 1-430-31820-1.
- ^ Jwing-Ming, Yang (1998-06-25). Qigong for Health & Martial Arts, Second Edition: Exercises and Meditation (Qigong, Health and Healing) (2 ed.). YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 1-886-96957-4.
- ^ , Michael L. (November 2003). Meditation & the Martial Arts (Studies in Rel & Culture). University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-813-92238-0.
- ^ Singh, S; Ernst E (2008). Trick or treatment: The undeniable facts about alternative medicine. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393066616.
- ^ Montague, Erle; Wally Simpson (March 1997). The Main Meridians (Encyclopedia Of Dim-Mak). Paladin Press. ISBN 1-581-60537-4.
- ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming (1999-06-25). Ancient Chinese Weapons, Second Edition: The Martial Arts Guide. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 1-886-96967-1.
- ^ Wang, Ju-Rong; Wen-Ching Wu (2006-06-13). Sword Imperatives--Mastering the Kung Fu and Tai Chi Sword. The Way of the Dragon Publishing. ISBN 1-889-65925-8.
- ^ Lo, Man Kam (2001-11-01). Police Kung Fu: The Personal Combat Handbook of the Taiwan National Police. Tattle Publishing. ISBN 0-804-83271-4.
- ^ Shengli, Lu (2006-02-09). Combat Techniques of Taiji, Xingyi, and Bagua: Principles and Practices of Internal Martial Arts. Trans. Zhang Yuan. Blue Snake Books. ISBN 1-583-94145-2.
- ^ Hui, Mizhou (July 1996). San Shou Kung Fu Of The Chinese Red Army: Practical Skills And Theory Of Unarmed Combat. Paladin Press. ISBN 0-873-64884-6.
- ^ Liang, Shou-Yu; Tai D. Ngo (1997-04-25). Chinese Fast Wrestling for Fighting: The Art of San Shou Kuai Ciao Throws, Takedowns, & Ground-Fighting. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 1-886-96949-3.
- ^ a b Bolelli, Daniel (2003-02-20). On the Warrior's Path: Philosophy, Fighting, and Martial Arts Mythology. Frog Books. ISBN 1-583-94066-9.
- ^ Kane, Lawrence A. (2005). The Way of Kata. YMAA Publication Center. pp. 56. ISBN 1-594-39058-4.
- ^ Johnson, Ian; Sue Feng (August 20, 2008). "Inner Peace? Olympic Sport? A Fight Brews". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121916373044753643.html. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ Fowler, Geoffrey; Juliet Ye (December 14, 2007). "Kung Fu Monks Don't Get a Kick Out of Fighting". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB119758024054227513.html?mod=Sports. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ Seabrook, Jamie A. (2003). Martial Arts Revealed. IUniverse. pp. 20. ISBN 0595282474.
- ^ , Xie (1999). International Wushu Competition Routines. Hai Feng Publishing Co., Ltd. ISBN 9-622-38153-7.
- ^ Parry, Richard Lloyd (August 16, 2008). "Kung fu warriors fight for martial art's future". London: Times Online. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article4543383.ece. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ Polly, Matthew (2007). American Shaolin: Flying Kicks, Buddhist Monks, and the Legend of Iron Crotch : an Odyssey in the New China. Gotham. ISBN 9-781-59240262-5.
- ^ Deng, Ming-dao (1990-12-19). Scholar Warrior: An Introduction to the Tao in Everyday Life (1st ed.). HarperOne. ISBN 0-062-50232-8.
- ^ Joel Stein (1999-06-14). "???? 100: Bruce Lee". Time. http://www.time.com/time/time100/heroes/profile/lee01.html. Retrieved 2008-06-09.
- ^ Prashad, Vijay (2002-11-18). Everybody Was Kung Fu Fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of Cultural Purity. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-807-05011-3.
- ^ Kato, M. T. (2007-02-08). From Kung Fu to Hip Hop: Globalization, Revolution, and Popular Culture (Suny Series, Explorations in Post colonial Studies). State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-791-46992-1.
- ^ Danton, Kirk A.; Bruce Fulton and Sharalyn Orbaugh (2003-08-15). "Chapter 87. Martial-Arts Fiction and Jain Yong". In Joshua S. Mostow. The Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literature. Columbia University Press. pp. 509. ISBN 0-231-11314-5.
- ^ Schneiderman, R. M. (2009-05-23). "Contender Shores Up Karate’s Reputation Among U.F.C. Fans". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/23/sports/23karate.html. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
- ^ Pilato, Herbie J. (1993-05-15). Kung Fu Book of Cain (1st ed.). Tattle Publishing. ISBN 0-804-81826-6.
- ^ Carradine, David (1993-01-15). Spirit of Shaolin. Tattle Publishing. ISBN 0-804-81828-2.